Controller (computing) - Wikipedia
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Controller (computing) – Wikipedia

In computing and particularly in pc {hardware}, a controller is a chip (similar to a microcontroller), an enlargement card, or a stand-alone machine that interfaces with a extra peripheral machine. This can be a hyperlink between two elements of a pc (for instance a reminiscence controller that manages entry to reminiscence for the pc) or a controller on an exterior machine that manages the operation of (and reference to) that machine.

The time period is typically used within the reverse sense to consult with a tool by which the consumer controls the operation of the pc, as in recreation controller.

In desktop computer systems the controller could also be a plug-in board, a single built-in circuit on the motherboard, or an exterior machine. In mainframes the controller is normally both a separate machine connected to a channel or built-in into the peripheral.

Host and peripheral controllers[edit]

Controllers might be current on either side of a pc bus. The controller on the host facet (bodily a part of the host) known as a host controller or (in storage contexts) a host bus adapter. The controller on the peripheral facet (bodily a part of the peripheral machine) known as a peripheral controller; examples are disk controllers and flash reminiscence controllers, which in fashionable methods are normally built-in into the drive.

This classification doesn’t apply to community controllers, since methods take part as friends and neither system is clearly extra central/peripheral.

Controller boards[edit]

Video show controller enlargement board

Early desktop computer systems such because the IMSAI 8080 used enlargement boards (or enlargement playing cards) for all controllers, every dealing with a particular kind of machine. Examples of enlargement board controllers are:

Controller chips[edit]

Intel C8251 Common Synchronous/Asynchronous Receiver/Transmitter (USART) chip

As chip densities improved controllers have been applied as single chips and infrequently positioned on the motherboard. Examples are:

Additional integration enabled growth of Tremendous I/O chips — single chips that might management quite a lot of gadgets similar to floppy disks, parallel ports, serial ports, keyboard, and mouse.

Exterior controllers[edit]

A disassembled and labeled disk drive displaying controller built-in into the drive.

Mainframe controllers[edit]

IBM 1311 Disk Drives. Mannequin 3 (on proper) accommodates an built-in controller for itself and as much as Three Mannequin 2s (on left).[1]:p.2

In IBM terminology a controller is “a tool that decodes the [channel] command and results the operation of the machine.”[2]:p.5–1

In most mainframe methods a device-independent channel normally attaches to the CPU and to a controller or management unit which implements device-dependent logic for attaching particular gadgets. The features carried out by the management unit are much like the features carried out by a tool driver program on smaller methods. Some gadgets have built-in management items, that are logically discrete however are included with the machine moderately than requiring a separate field. Usually a management unit can connect to a number of channels related to a single or a number of methods. Some mainframe management items are:

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