HardwareLiSter – ezIX
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HardwareLiSter – ezIX

lshw (Hardware Lister) is a small instrument to supply detailed info on the {hardware} configuration of the machine. It may well report actual reminiscence configuration, firmware model, mainboard configuration, CPU model and pace, cache configuration, bus pace, and many others. on DMI-capable x86 or EFI (IA-64) programs and on some PowerPC machines (PowerMac G4 is understood to work).



  • Linux 2.4.x or 2.6.x (2.2.x would possibly work, although)
  • a PA-RISC, Alpha, IA-64 (Itanium), PowerPC or x86 based mostly machine
  • an ANSI (or shut sufficient to ANSI compliance) C++ compiler (examined with GCC 2.95.Four and three.2.2)
  • for the (elective) GTK+ graphical consumer interface, you will have a whole GTK+ 2.Four growth surroundings (gtk2-devel on RedHat/Fedora derivatives)

Data will be output in plain textual content, XML or HTML.

It at present helps DMI (x86 and EFI solely), OpenFirmware system tree (PowerPC solely), PCI/AGP, ISA PnP (x86), CPUID (x86), IDE/ATA/ATAPI, PCMCIA (solely examined on x86), USB and SCSI.


The most recent model is B.02.19.2.
You may obtain the supply code.

Some statistics

The next figures have been gathered for lshw B.02.19 with David A. Wheeler’s SLOCCount.

Totals grouped by language (dominant language first):

  • C++: 20824 (98.05%)
  • ANSI C: 414 (1.95%)
Complete Bodily Supply Traces of Code (SLOC) 21,238
Growth Effort Estimate, Particular person-Years (Particular person-Months)
Primary COCOMO mannequin: person-months = 2.4 KSLOC1.05
4.95 (59.39)
Schedule Estimate, Years (Months)
Primary COCOMO mannequin: months = 2.5 person-months0.38
0.98 (11.80)
Estimated Common Variety of Builders (Effort/Schedule?) 5.03
Complete Estimated Value to Develop
(common wage = $56,286/yr, overhead = 2.40)
$ 668,515

Pre-compiled variations

Mandriva Linux consists of lshw as an ordinary bundle.

Gentoo Linux bundles lshw, too.

Debian packages are accessible for a lot of platforms.

Ubuntu packages are accessible.

Fedora now consists of lshw:

$ sudo yum set up lshw lshw-gui

to put in lshw and its GUI.

Packaging status


Instance output

  • Desktop PC
    GTK+ graphical consumer interface (gtk-lshw)

  • Apple PowerMac twin G4 1.25GHz, 768MB reminiscence
    ioscan-like output (lshw -short)
    H/W path             Machine             Class      Description
    	                                system     Laptop
    /0                                      bus        
    /0/fff00000                             reminiscence     BootROM
    /0/0                 /proc/device-tree  reminiscence     OpenFirmware 3
    /0/1                                    reminiscence     System reminiscence
    /0/1/0                                  reminiscence     Reminiscence financial institution
    /0/1/1                                  reminiscence     Reminiscence financial institution
    /0/half of                                  reminiscence     Reminiscence financial institution
    /0/1/3                                  reminiscence     Reminiscence financial institution
    /0/2                                    processor  CPU
    /0/2/0                                  reminiscence     L1 Cache
    /0/2/1                                  reminiscence     L2 Cache (unified)
    /0/3                                    processor  CPU
    /0/3/0                                  reminiscence     L1 Cache
    /0/3/1                                  reminiscence     L2 Cache (unified)
    /0/100                                  bridge     Host bridge
    /0/100/10            /dev/fb0           show    VGA suitable controller (VGA)
    /0/101                                  bridge     Host bridge
    /0/101/17                               generic    KeyLargo Mac I/O
    /0/101/17/1          ide1               bus        Channel 0
    /0/101/17/1/0        /dev/hdc           disk       IDE CD-ROM
    /0/101/17/1/0/0      scsi0              storage    SCSI storage controller
    /0/101/17/1/0/0/0                       bus        Channel 0
    /0/101/17/1/0/0/0/0  /dev/dvd           disk       DVD reader
    /0/101/18                               bus        USB Controller (OHCI)
    /0/101/19                               bus        USB Controller (OHCI)
    /0/101/1b                               bus        USB Controller (OHCI)
    /0/101/1b.1                             bus        USB Controller (OHCI)
    /0/101/1b.2                             bus        USB Controller (EHCI)
    /0/102                                  bridge     Host bridge
    /0/102/d                                generic    UniNorth 2 ATA/100
    /0/102/d/2           ide2               bus        Channel 0
    /0/102/d/2/0         /dev/hde           disk       ATA Disk
    /0/102/e                                bus        FireWire (IEEE 1394) (OHCI)
    /0/102/f             eth0               community    Ethernet controller
  • Dell OptiPlex GXa Pentium II 266MHz 192MB reminiscence
    	product: OptiPlex GXa 266L EM+
    	vendor: Dell Laptop Company
    	serial: NL2SC
    	capabilities: smbios-2.2 dmi-2.2
    	      description: BIOS
    	      vendor: Dell Laptop Company
    	      model: A10 (06/23/00)
    	      measurement: 64KB
    	      capability: 192KB
    	      capabilities: isa pci pnp apm improve shadowing escd cdboot bootselect edd int13floppytoshiba int13floppy360 int13floppy1200 int13floppy720 int13floppy2880 int5printscreen int9keyboard int14serial int17printer int10video
    	      product: Pentium II (Klamath)
    	      vendor: GenuineIntel
    	      slot: Microprocessor
    	      measurement: 266MHz
    	      capability: 333MHz
    	      clock: 66MHz
    	      capabilities: fpu fpu_exception wp vme de pse tsc msr pae mce cx8 sep mtrr pge mca cmov mmx
    	         description: Inner L1 Cache
    	         measurement: 32KB
    	         capability: 32KB
    	         description: Pipeline burst Synchronous Exterior L2 write-back Cache
    	         measurement: 512KB
    	         capability: 512KB
    	      description: System Reminiscence
    	      slot: System board or motherboard
    	      measurement: 192MB
    	      capability: 384MB
    	         description: DIMM DRAM Synchronous 64 bits
    	         slot: DIMM_A
    	         measurement: 64MB
    	         description: DIMM DRAM Synchronous 64 bits
    	         slot: DIMM_B
    	         measurement: 64MB
    	         description: DIMM DRAM Synchronous 64 bits
    	         slot: DIMM_C
    	         measurement: 64MB

How you can interpret lshw‘s output

lshw shows nodes with attributes in a tree-like construction (that may be in indented plain textual content kind, HTML, XML or graphically displayed within the GUI). Every node has its particular person standing: or not it’s CLAIMED (probably usable) or UNCLAIMED (no driver has been detected for this node), ENABLED (this system is supported and can be utilized) or DISABLED (this system is supported however has been disabled):

  • a node is marked as CLAIMED if a driver (often a kernel module or a driver throughout the monolithic kernel) has been loaded for it
  • a node is marked as UNCLAIMED if no particular help for it has been loaded (or lshw has been unable to establish the motive force)
  • a node is marked as ENABLED if a driver has been loaded for it and is absolutely practical
  • a node is marked as DISABLED if the node has been disabled by a configuration, some {hardware} failure, and many others.

Every node can include sub-nodes and might have plenty of attributes, capabilities, assets and configuration values.


Attribute That means Instance 1 Instance 2 Instance 3 Instance 4
id inner identifier utilized by lshw cpu:2 community:1 cdrom:0 disk:2
class system’s class (see under) processor community disk disk
description human-readable description of the {hardware} node CPU Ethernet interface DVD reader SCSI disk
vendor vendor/producer of the system Intel Corp. Superior Micro Gadgets [AMD] QUANTUM
product product identify of the system Intel(R) Pentium(R) Four CPU 1.90GHz 79c970 [PCnet32 LANCE] Hewlett-Packard DVD Author 100 ATLAS IV 9 WLS
model model/launch of the system 15.1.2 25 1.37 0707
serial serial variety of the system 00:60:b0:87:86:22 CN1AA0786J 369914632368
capability most capability reported by the system 100000000 (100MB/s) 9167634432 (8742MB)
measurement precise measurement of the system 1900000000 (1.9GHz) 10000000 (10MB/s) 9105018880 (8683MB)
clock bus clock (in Hz) of the system 100000000 (100MHz) 33000000 (33MHz)
width handle width of the system (32 or 64 bits)
this has nothing to do with having 32bit or 64bit driver
32 32
slot the place the system is linked (bodily location/slot) Processor 1
logicalname logical identify below which the node is understood to the system eth0 /dev/hdc /dev/sdc
dev system quantity (main.minor) 22d:0d 8d:32d
businfo bus info [email protected] [email protected]:0a.0 [email protected] [email protected]:0.12.0
physid bodily id 4 a 0 0.c.0


  • measurement and capability can have numerous meanings relying on the system: for a processor, measurement is the processor’s frequency in hertz; for a disc, it is its precise storage capability in bytes (and capability refers to its unformatted capability, together with unhealthy sectors); for a community interface, measurement and capability discuss with bandwidth in bits per second
  • the dimensions of a node is all the time inferior or equal to its capability
  • serial refers back to the system’s serial quantity for discs, reminiscence, processors, numerous boards, and many others. however is used to report MAC handle for community gadgets, GUID for disk partitions


Capabilities are used to report options of a given node. The precise which means of every characteristic is determined by the kind of node, it may be the presence of an arithmetical co-processor for a CPU, the flexibility to run at 1GB/s for a community interface, and many others.
Most often. capabilities reported by lshw are auto-documented (each XML and HTML variations report a remark about every characteristic and that remark is displayed within the GUI).

Node configuration values


Useful resource sort Description Examples
irq IRQ irq:16
ioport I/O ports ioport:1f0(measurement=8)
iomem I/O window iomem:00006000-000060ff
reminiscence reminiscence window (prefetchable or not) reminiscence:88000000-8bfff000(prefetchable)

Machine lessons

Class Description Examples
system used to discuss with the entire machine laptop computer, server, desktop laptop
bridge inner bus converter PCI-to-PCI brige, AGP bridge, PCMCIA controler, host bridge
reminiscence reminiscence financial institution that may include information, executable code, and many others. RAM, BIOS, firmware, extension ROM
processor execution processor CPUs, RAID controller on a SCSI bus
handle reminiscence handle vary extension ROM, video reminiscence
storage storage controller SCSI controller, IDE controller
disk random-access storage system discs, optical storage (CD-ROM, DVD±RW…)
tape sequential-access storage system DAT, DDS
bus device-connecting bus USB, SCSI, Firewire
community community interface Ethernet, FDDI, WiFi, Bluetooth
show show adapter EGA/VGA, UGA…
enter consumer enter system keyboards, mice, joysticks…
printer printing system printer, all-in-one
multimedia audio/video system sound card, TV-output card, video acquisition card
communication line communication system serial ports, modem
energy vitality supply energy provide, inner battery
quantity disk quantity filesystem, swap, and many others.
generic generic system (used when no pre-defined class is appropriate)

Bus info and system numbering

The final type of bus info is bus_type@dotted.hexadecimal.handle

Bus Description Format Instance
cpu CPUs [email protected]id[,logicalcpu] [email protected]
[email protected],1
firewire FireWire (IEEE1394) [email protected]GUID [email protected]
ide ATA/ATAPI/IDE [email protected]controler.id [email protected] (grasp)
[email protected] (slave)
pci PCI (or AGP) bus [email protected]bus:slot.operate [email protected]:0a.0
scsi SCSI bus [email protected]controler:goal.id.lun [email protected]:0.12.0
usb Common Serial Bus [email protected]controler:slot.id [email protected]:2.2

Bus info may also be prolonged to incorporate “partitions” info: [email protected]:0.12.0,1 is used to discuss with the primary partition of LUN Zero of the SCSI disc with id 12.

Set up

tar xvfz lshw-launch.tar.gz

cd lshw-launch
you may also construct the elective GUI:
make gui

  • if you wish to construct an RPM bundle:

rpmbuild -ta lshw-launch.tar.gz
or, to incorporate the elective GUI:
rpmbuild -ta --with gui lshw-launch.tar.gz


lshw [format] [options… ]
the place format will be

-X to launch the GUI (if accessible)
-html to activate HTML mode
-xml to activate XML mode
-short to print {hardware} paths
-businfo to print bus info

and choices will be

-enable TEST to allow a check
-disable TEST to disable a check
-class CLASS to restrict the output to a given class
-C CLASS alias for -class CLASS

NOTE: to make use of some options (like DMI on x86 platforms), you want to run lshw as root or it’ll solely report partial info.

Recognized issues/limitations

  • on x86, lshw must be run as root to have the ability to entry DMI info from the BIOS
  • working lshw as a non-root consumer often offers a lot much less detailed info
  • lshw is usually confused about the place to attach emulated SCSI gadgets (like USB storage gadgets, IEEE1394 disks and SCSI-over-IDE CD writers). It will hopefully be mounted on model 2.6 kernels through the use of sysfs.
  • Energetic tickets in opposition to lshw

Examine that it impacts the newest launched model (many issues get mounted between variations). Please be sure you embody the next info (even in the event you do not suppose it is related, it might matter):

  • the platform: are you utilizing a PC, a Mac, a workstation?
  • the structure: is it an x86 (AMD or Intel), x86-64, PA-RISC, Itanium, PowerPC, Sparc, MIPS, Alpha, and many others. ?
  • the distribution: Fedora, Debian, Ubuntu, Redhat, Mandrake/Mandriva?, and many others. (some distributions are identified to ship damaged kernel headers and different traps)
  • the model numbers of essential elements: lshw, kernel, GCC, libc (and the distribution itself)
  • the whole output of lshw -xml run as root
  • as a lot element as potential about your downside (signs, reproduce, on which {hardware}, and many others.)

It will vastly enhance the possibilities of getting a fast and correct reply. For those who do not embody that type of info, I will most likely ask for it anyway…

Git code repository entry

The repository will be accessed at https://ezix.org/src/pkg/lshw


  • lshw B.02.19
    detection of NVMe disks
    detection of SD/MMC and SDIO gadgets
    bug fixes
    code cleanup
    up to date information recordsdata
  • lshw B.02.18
    IBM pSeries enhancements
    bug fixes
    code cleanup
    up to date information recordsdata
  • lshw B.02.17
    bug fixes
    code cleanup
    improved help for FAT-formatted disks
    up to date information recordsdata
  • lshw B.02.16
    bug fixes
    code cleanup
    improved help for GPT-partitioned disks
    report bodily sector measurement of onerous disks
    rewrote GTK2 GUI for elevated flexibility (use exterior UI file)
    up to date information recordsdata
  • lshw B.02.15
    primarily bugfix launch
    portability fixes
    experimental help for dumping the {hardware} record into an SQLite database
    up to date datafiles
  • lshw B.02.14
    primarily bugfix launch
    correctly detect EXT4 volumes (#441)
    repair /proc/mounts associated grasp (#442, #420)
    portability downside (#423, #430, #434)
    generate correct XML (#416, #437)
    code cleanup
    up to date information recordsdata
  • lshw B.02.13
    primarily bugfix launch
    correctly detect 64 bit programs (even when compiled for i386) (#402)
    SMP-related crash on IA-64 (#401)
    portability downside on Arch Linux (#399)
    portability downside (crash) on Sparc (#386)
    grasp on sure PCI gadgets (#340)
    Debian bug 456896 (#105)
    code cleanup
    up to date information recordsdata
  • lshw B.02.12.01
    bugfix launch: corrected an issue when loading lengthy (>100 characters) traces in usb.ids
  • lshw B.02.12
    be extra cautious about invalid UTF-Eight strings (some DMI implementations return rubbish) (#142)
    added detection of LUKS volumes (#132)
    carried out automated examine for updates
    carried out SMP detection (#7)
    report quantity/filesystem detailed info (FAT, ext2/ext3, reiserfs, NTFS, HFS/HFS+, swap)
    report MBR disk signatures (#21)
    GUI: added nologo make goal to take away copyrighted icons
    GUI: added icon make goal to embed SVG icon into executable
    GUI: show a warning when working as non-root consumer
    up to date information recordsdata
  • lshw B.02.11.01
    mounted make set up (#128)
    GUI: solely activate Save operate (toolbar button and menu entry) when wanted
    GUI: higher dealing with of older GTK+ variations that may’t learn SVG recordsdata (#130)
    up to date information recordsdata
  • lshw B.02.11
    carried out “export” operate in GUI (#13)
    RPM bundle cleanups, GUI now constructed by default (#111)
    mounted XML output (#115)
    mounted dealing with of command-line choices (#121)
    added -sanitize choice (#122)
    help 15000rpm SCSI discs (#124)
    mounted IDE detection (#126)
  • lshw B.02.10
    minor bugfixes (#95, )
    added -quiet choice (#107)
    added preliminary help for IDE RAID arrays (#25)
  • lshw B.02.09
    minor bugfixes (#26, #27)
    added help for PCI domains (#28)
    use of /sys (sysfs) when potential for PCI gadgets
  • lshw B.02.08.01
    bugfix launch for non-x86 platforms (#24)
  • lshw B.02.08
    added reporting of GUID-based partitions tables (#4)
    added reporting of primary LVM2 info (#2)
    “nicer” (and extra customisable) HTML output
  • lshw B.02.07
    added reporting of prolonged partitions (#1)
    minor beauty fixes
    some new SVG icons [1235] [1236] [1237]
  • lshw B.02.06
    mounted reporting of SCSI disks serial numbers [1159] [1158]
    added help for reporting of disk partitions (MS-DOS [1107], Apple [1112] & HP-UX LIF [1113])
    some new SVG icons [1163] [1160] [1155]
  • lshw B.02.05.01
    mounted a portability downside with GTK+ [1099]
  • lshw B.02.05
    added help for DVD writers
    improved GUI usability (because of OpenUsability volonteers: Tina Trillitzsch and Florian Graessle)
    many new SVG icons
    added a brand for LSHW (used as icon for gtk-lshw’s home windows)
    construct system updates
    bug fixes
  • lshw B.02.04
    added help for CPUFreq (Speedstep & related applied sciences)
    the GUI now makes use of a GtkTextView as an alternative of a GtkLabel
    SVG icons are actually displayed for USB, Firewire, SCSI, and many others.
    added help for reporting VMX (Vanderpool) capabilities (untested)
    mounted a compilation downside with GCC 4
  • lshw B.02.03
    added help for PA-RISC gadgets (IODC-controlled) on 2.6 kernels
    the GUI can now be launched by invoking lshw with the -X choice
    community gadgets clean-up (eliminated final bits of MII-diag, changed by ethtool); gigabit-ethernet is now reported
    beauty fixes
    simplified reporting of SCSI gadgets
    added an XML Schema Definition (XSD)​
    fixes for Apple machines (serial # reporting, extra fashions recognized)
    added reporting of “width” (32 or 64 bits) for numerous elements (PCI gadgets, reminiscence banks, CPUs)
    documentation updates
    permit parallel builds on multi-CPU programs
  • lshw B.02.02
    added reporting of battery-related info utilizing DMI
    added reporting of {hardware} safety (DMI): admin/consumer/power-on passwords
    FIX: labored across the disparition of /proc/ide/ide*/config on 2.6.10
    new “businfo” output type
    first attempt to outline an XML schema (cf. XSD file in docs/)
    renamed lm functionality to x86-64 (simpler to know)
    portability fixes for RedHat 7.3
    up to date USB IDs
    documentation updates
    added help for /proc/cpuinfo on x86-64
    code cleanup
  • lshw B.02.01
    higher help for emulated SCSI gadgets: USB mass storage gadgets are actually correctly dealt with
    added a “go-up” button to the GUI
    lshw now studies x86-64 functionality (because of Erwan Velu)
    minor fixes to offer higher descriptions of capabilities
    robotically create ghost (eliminated after use) /dev/sgxx entries when wanted (impacts Fedora Core Three and different distributions that do not embody these entries)
    USB code clean-up
    portability fixes for http://www.gentoo.org/ Gentoo Linux
  • lshw B.02.00
    numerous fixes
    added a GTK+ GUI
  • lshw A.01.09
    code cleanup
    added help for USB gadgets
    numerous fixes
    up to date record of recognised PCI gadgets
    added record of recognised USB gadgets
    supply code reorganisation
    preparation for the event of a GTK+-based GUI
  • lshw A.01.08
    code cleanup
    added help for static and compressed (UPX) static builds
    added help for HT (hyper-threading); lshw now studies “digital” CPUs
    DMI fixes (because of Erwan Velu from MandrakeSoft)
    XML output filtering
    packaging system fixes (because of Oron Peled)
    up to date record of recognised PCI gadgets
  • lshw A.01.07
    mounted annoying IDE-related bug that induced un-necessary kernel error messages
    portability fixes
    migrated lshw’s supply code to Subversion
    construct system updates
    extra work on sysfs
    report WLAN capabilities
    report pace of community hyperlinks
  • lshw A.01.06
    code cleanup
    help for EFI-based (IA-64) programs, because of Bruno Cornec from HP
    the output of lshw can now be restricted to sure lessons of {hardware} (disks, reminiscence, and many others.)
    preliminary help for two.6 kernel utilizing sysfs
    very preliminary help for USB gadgets (disabled by default)
    mounted typos
  • lshw A.01.05
    code cleanup
    PCI and PCMCIA now appropriately report assets (ports, reminiscence and IRQs)
    help for framebuffer gadgets
    report detailed DIMM information on PowerPC machines
    mounted compilation downside for older distributions
  • lshw A.01.04
    starting of assets reporting
    bug fixes for multi-host bridge machines (servers, PowerMacs)
    fixes for OpenFirmware machines (PowerMacs)
    SCSI-over-IDE fixes (now linked to the correct IDE system)
    new means to disable some exams
    ISA PnP is now disabled by default (was too lengthy)
  • lshw A.01.03
    new ioscan (HP-UX) -like output format
    added detection of ISA Plug & Play playing cards on x86 machines
    lshw now studies extra detailed info on community interfaces
  • lshw A.01.02
    beauty adjustments
    added detection of Apple mannequin names for Macs
    1st attempt of SPD reminiscence DIMM help
    lshw now studies info on community interfaces
  • lshw A.01.01
    mounted reminiscence reporting for programs with greater than 2GB of reminiscence
  • lshw A.01.07
    minor bug fixes
    help for extra platforms (PA-RISC, IA-64 and Alpha)
    lshw can now generate XML
  • lshw T.00.07
    minor bug fixes
    lshw now generates appropriate HTML (because of Ola Lundqvist)
    SCSI help
    added a manpage (because of Helge Kreutzmann)
  • lshw T.00.06
    minor bug fixes
    PCMCIA help
    help for system claiming
    preliminary help for non-PCI IDE controllers/gadgets
  • lshw T.00.05
    code clean-up
    probing of IDE gadgets
  • lshw T.00.04
    activated HTML mode
    reporting of video reminiscence
    bug fixes
  • lshw T.00.03
    fixes for GCC 3.2
  • lshw T.00.02
    second public check launch
    PCI busses itemizing
  • lshw T.00.01
    first public check launch
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