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Java Database Connectivity – Wikipedia

Java Database Connectivity (JDBC) is an software programming interface (API) for the programming language Java, which defines how a shopper might entry a database. It’s a Java-based information entry expertise used for Java database connectivity. It’s a part of the Java Normal Version platform, from Oracle Company. It offers strategies to question and replace information in a database, and is oriented towards relational databases. A JDBC-to-ODBC bridge allows connections to any ODBC-accessible information supply within the Java digital machine (JVM) host surroundings.

Historical past and implementation[edit]

Solar Microsystems launched JDBC as a part of Java Growth Equipment (JDK) 1.1 on February 19, 1997.[1]
Since then it has been a part of the Java Platform, Normal Version (Java SE).

The JDBC courses are contained within the Java package deal java.sql and javax.sql.

Beginning with model 3.1, JDBC has been developed underneath the Java Group Course of. JSR 54 specifies JDBC 3.0 (included in J2SE 1.4), JSR 114 specifies the JDBC Rowset additions, and JSR 221 is the specification of JDBC 4.0 (included in Java SE 6).[2]

JDBC 4.1, is specified by a upkeep launch 1 of JSR 221[3] and is included in Java SE 7.[4]

JDBC 4.2, is specified by a upkeep launch 2 of JSR 221[5] and is included in Java SE 8.[6]

The newest model, JDBC 4.3, is specified by a upkeep launch Three of JSR 221[7] and is included in Java SE 9.[8]


JDBC (‘Java Database Connectivity’) permits a number of implementations to exist and be utilized by the identical software. The API offers a mechanism for dynamically loading the right Java packages and registering them with the JDBC Driver Supervisor. The Driver Supervisor is used as a connection manufacturing unit for creating JDBC connections.

JDBC connections help creating and executing statements. These could also be replace statements resembling SQL’s CREATE, INSERT, UPDATE and DELETE, or they might be question statements resembling SELECT. Moreover, saved procedures could also be invoked by way of a JDBC connection. JDBC represents statements utilizing one of many following courses:

Replace statements resembling INSERT, UPDATE and DELETE return an replace rely that signifies what number of rows have been affected within the database. These statements don’t return every other info.

Question statements return a JDBC row end result set. The row end result set is used to stroll over the end result set. Particular person columns in a row are retrieved both by title or by column quantity. There could also be any variety of rows within the end result set. The row end result set has metadata that describes the names of the columns and their sorts.

There may be an extension to the essential JDBC API within the javax.sql.

JDBC connections are sometimes managed by way of a connection pool slightly than obtained straight from the motive force.

Host database sorts which Java can convert to with a operate
Oracle Datatype setXXX() Strategies
CHAR setString()
VARCHAR2 setString()
NUMBER setBigDecimal()
INTEGER setInt()
FLOAT setDouble()
CLOB setClob()
BLOB setBlob()
RAW setBytes()
LONGRAW setBytes()
DATE setDate()


When a Java software wants a database connection, one of many DriverManager.getConnection() strategies is used to create a JDBC connection. The URL used depends upon the actual database and JDBC driver. It should at all times start with the “jdbc:” protocol, however the remaining is as much as the actual vendor.

Connection conn = DriverManager.getConnection(
     "jdbc:somejdbcvendor:different information wanted by some jdbc vendor",
strive {
     /* you utilize the connection right here */
} lastly {
    //It is vital to shut the connection if you end up achieved with it
    strive { 
    } catch (Throwable e) { /* Propagate the unique exception
                                as an alternative of this one that you really want simply logged */ 
        logger.warn("Couldn't shut JDBC Connection",e);

Ranging from Java SE 7 you need to use Java’s try-with-resources assertion to make the above code less complicated:

strive (Connection conn = DriverManager.getConnection(
     "jdbc:somejdbcvendor:different information wanted by some jdbc vendor",
     "myPassword")) {
     /* you utilize the connection right here */
}  // the VM will maintain closing the connection

As soon as a connection is established, a press release might be created.

strive (Assertion stmt = conn.createStatement()) {
    stmt.executeUpdate("INSERT INTO MyTable(title) VALUES ('my title')");

Be aware that Connections, Statements, and ResultSets usually tie up working system sources resembling sockets or file descriptors. Within the case of Connections to distant database servers, additional sources are tied up on the server, e.g., cursors for at present open ResultSets.
It’s vital to shut() any JDBC object as quickly because it has performed its half;
rubbish assortment shouldn’t be relied upon.
The above try-with-resources assemble is a code sample that obviates this.

Knowledge is retrieved from the database utilizing a database question mechanism. The instance under reveals creating a press release and executing a question.

strive (Assertion stmt = conn.createStatement();
    ResultSet rs = stmt.executeQuery("SELECT * FROM MyTable")
) {
    whereas (rs.subsequent()) {
        int numColumns = rs.getMetaData().getColumnCount();
        for (int i = 1; i <= numColumns; i++) {
           // Column numbers begin at 1.
           // Additionally there are various strategies on the end result set to return
           //  the column as a specific kind. Discuss with the Solar documentation
           //  for the record of legitimate conversions.
           System.out.println( "COLUMN " + i + " = " + rs.getObject(i));

An instance of a PreparedStatement question, utilizing conn and sophistication from first instance.

strive (PreparedStatement ps =
    conn.prepareStatement("SELECT i.*, j.* FROM Omega i, Zappa j WHERE i.title = ? AND j.num = ?")
) {
    // Within the SQL assertion being ready, every query mark is a placeholder
    // that have to be changed with a worth you present by way of a "set" methodology invocation.
    // The next two methodology calls change the 2 placeholders; the primary is
    // changed by a string worth, and the second by an integer worth.
    ps.setString(1, "Poor Yorick");
    ps.setInt(2, 8008);

    // The ResultSet, rs, conveys the results of executing the SQL assertion.
    // Every time you name rs.subsequent(), an inner row pointer, or cursor,
    // is superior to the subsequent row of the end result.  The cursor initially is
    // positioned earlier than the primary row.
    strive (ResultSet rs = ps.executeQuery()) {
        whereas (rs.subsequent()) {
            int numColumns = rs.getMetaData().getColumnCount();
            for (int i = 1; i <= numColumns; i++) {
                // Column numbers begin at 1.
                // Additionally there are various strategies on the end result set to return
                // the column as a specific kind. Discuss with the Solar documentation
                // for the record of legitimate conversions.
                System.out.println("COLUMN " + i + " = " + rs.getObject(i));
            } // for
        } // whereas
    } // strive
} // strive

If a database operation fails, JDBC raises an SQLException. There may be usually little or no one can do to recuperate from such an error, other than logging it with as a lot element as doable. It’s endorsed that the SQLException be translated into an software area exception (an unchecked one) that ultimately leads to a transaction rollback and a notification to the consumer.

An instance of a database transaction:

boolean autoCommitDefault = conn.getAutoCommit();
strive {

    /* You execute statements in opposition to conn right here transactionally */

} catch (Throwable e) {
    strive { conn.rollback(); } catch (Throwable e) { logger.warn("Couldn't rollback transaction", e); }
    throw e;
} lastly {
    strive { conn.setAutoCommit(autoCommitDefault); } catch (Throwable e) { logger.warn("Couldn't restore AutoCommit setting",e); }

For an instance of a CallableStatement (to name saved procedures within the database), see the JDBC API Information documentation.

import java.sql.Connection;
import java.sql.DriverManager;
import java.sql.Assertion;

public class Mydb1 {
   static String URL = "jdbc:mysql://localhost/mydb";

   public static void primary(String[] args) {
      strive {

        Connection conn = DriverManager.getConnection(URL, "root", "root");
        Assertion stmt = conn.createStatement();
        String sql = "INSERT INTO emp1 VALUES ('pctb5361', ‘kiril', 'john', 968666668)";
        System.out.println("Inserted data into the desk...");
      } catch (Exception e) {

JDBC drivers[edit]

JDBC drivers are client-side adapters (put in on the shopper machine, not on the server) that convert requests from Java packages to a protocol that the DBMS can perceive.


Industrial and free drivers present connectivity to most relational-database servers. These drivers fall into one of many following sorts:

  • Sort 1 that calls native code of the domestically out there ODBC driver. (Be aware: In JDBC 4.2, JDBC-ODBC bridge has been eliminated[9])
  • Sort 2 that calls database vendor native library on a shopper aspect. This code then talks to database over the community.
  • Sort 3, the pure-java driver that talks with the server-side middleware that then talks to the database.
  • Sort 4, the pure-java driver that makes use of database native protocol.

Be aware additionally a sort referred to as an inner JDBC driver – a driver embedded with JRE in Java-enabled SQL databases. It’s used for Java saved procedures. This doesn’t match into the classification scheme above, though it could possible resemble both a sort 2 or kind Four driver (relying on whether or not the database itself is carried out in Java or not). An instance of that is the KPRB (Kernel Program Bundled) driver[10]
equipped with Oracle RDBMS. “jdbc:default:connection” gives a comparatively customary method of constructing such a connection (at the least the Oracle database and Apache Derby help it). Nonetheless, within the case of an inner JDBC driver, the JDBC shopper truly runs as a part of the database being accessed, and so can entry information straight slightly than by way of community protocols.


  • Oracle offers a listing of some JDBC drivers and distributors
  • Simba Applied sciences ships an SDK for constructing customized JDBC Drivers for any customized/proprietary relational information supply
  • CData Software program ships kind Four JDBC Drivers for numerous purposes, databases, and Internet APIs.[11]
  • RSSBus Sort Four JDBC Drivers for purposes, databases, and internet providers[12]
  • DataDirect Applied sciences offers a complete suite of quick Sort Four JDBC drivers for all main database they promote as Sort 5[13]
  • IDS Software program offers a Sort Three JDBC driver for concurrent entry to all main databases. Supported options embrace resultset caching, SSL encryption, customized information supply, dbShield
  • JDBaccess is a Java persistence library for MySQL and Oracle which defines main database entry operations in a simple usable API above JDBC
  • JNetDirect offers a collection of absolutely Solar J2EE licensed high-performance JDBC drivers.
  • JDBCR4 is a service program written by Scott Klement to permit entry to JDBC from RPG on the IBM i.[14]
  • HSQLDB is a RDBMS with a JDBC driver and is on the market underneath a BSD license.
  • SchemaCrawler[15] is an open supply API that leverages JDBC, and makes database metadata out there as plain previous Java objects (POJOs)

See additionally[edit]


Exterior hyperlinks[edit]

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